Criticism of Wikipedia

Two radically different versions of the Wikipedia biography, Klee Irwin, presented to the public within days of each other: Wikipedia's susceptibility to edit wars and bias is one of the issues raised by Wikipedia critics

Criticism of Wikipedia—of the content, procedures, and operations, and of the Wikipedia community—covers many subjects, topics, and themes about the nature of Wikipedia as an open source encyclopedia of subject entries that almost anyone can edit. Wikipedia has been criticized for the uneven handling, acceptance, and retention of articles about controversial subjects. The principal concerns of the critics are the factual reliability of the content, the existence of systemic bias due to the demographics of its user base, as well as evidence of gender bias and racial bias. Further concerns are that the organization allows the participation of anonymous editors (leading to editorial vandalism), creates social stratification (albeit through an inquisitorial administrator vetting process[1]), and has overly complicated rules (encouraging litigious behavior).[2]

The November 4, 2016 issue of Wikipedia's own journal (Signposts) has a feature story lead titled "Washington Post continues in-depth Wikipedia coverage", which also links to a critical piece from the Heartland Institute.[3] While the Washington Post article argues that with time Wikipedia's "liberal" political bias is diminishing,[4] the Heartland Institute article links to 24 articles critical of Wikipedia, primarily from a "conservative" point of view.[5] The Washington Post article, generally laudatory in tone, also states that many Wikipedia editors are unpaid.[4]

Criticism of content

Wikipedia is described as unreliable at times. Edwin Black has characterized the editorial content of articles as a mixture of "truth, half-truth, and some falsehoods".[6] and Oliver Kamm has said that articles are usually dominated by the editors with the loudest and most persistent editorial voices (talk pages and edit summaries), usually by an interest group with an ideological "axe to grind" on the subject, topic, or theme of the article in question.[7]

Wikipedia articles on politics and ideology have also been criticized. Two works published in 2012 are critical of the undue-weight policy (relative importance of a given source), and concluded that, because the purpose of Wikipedia is not to provide correct and definitive information about a subject,[8] but to present, as the consensus opinion, the majority opinion advanced by the authors of the entry's sources. The uneven application of the undue-weight policy creates omissions (of fact and of interpretation) that might give the reader false impressions about the subject matter, based upon the incompleteness of the Wikipedia article.[8][9][10]

Wikipedia is sometimes characterized as having a hostile editing environment. In Common Knowledge?: An Ethnography of Wikipedia (2014), Dariusz Jemielniak, a steward for Wikimedia Foundation projects, stated that the complexity of the rules and laws governing editorial content and the behavior of the editors is a burden for new editors and a licence for the "office politics" of disruptive editors.[2][11] In a follow-up article, Jemielniak said that abridging and rewriting the editorial rules and laws of Wikipedia for clarity of purpose and simplicity of application would resolve the bureaucratic bottleneck of too many rules.[11] In The Rise and Decline of an Open Collaboration System: How Wikipedia's Reaction to Popularity is Causing its Decline (2013), Aaron Halfaker stated that the over-complicated rules and laws of Wikipedia unintentionally provoked the decline in editorial participation that began in 2009—frightening away new editors who otherwise would contribute to Wikipedia.[12]

There have also been works that describe the possible misuse of Wikipedia. In "Wikipedia or Wickedpedia?" (2008), the Hoover Institution said that Wikipedia is an unreliable resource for correct knowledge, information, and facts about a subject, because, as an open source website, the editorial content of the articles is readily subjected to manipulation and propaganda.[13] The 2014 edition of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's official student handbook, Academic Integrity at MIT, informs students that Wikipedia is not a reliable academic source, stating, "the bibliography published at the end of the Wikipedia entry may point you to potential sources. However, do not assume that these sources are reliable—use the same criteria to judge them as you would any other source. Do not consider the Wikipedia bibliography as a replacement for your own research."[14]

Accuracy of information

For more details on this topic, see Reliability of Wikipedia § Assessments.

Not authoritative

Wikipedia acknowledges that the encyclopedia should not be used as a primary source for research, either academic or informational. The British librarian Philip Bradley said that "the main problem is the lack of authority. With printed publications, the publishers have to ensure that their data are reliable, as their livelihood depends on it. But with something like this, all that goes out the window."[15] Likewise, Robert McHenry, editor-in-chief of Encyclopædia Britannica from 1992 to 1997, said that readers of Wikipedia articles cannot know who wrote the article they are reading—it might have been written by an expert in the subject matter or by an amateur.[16] In November 2015, Wikipedia co-founder Larry Sanger told Zach Schwartz in Vice: "I think Wikipedia never solved the problem of how to organize itself in a way that didn't lead to mob rule" and that since he left the project, "People that I would say are trolls sort of took over. The inmates started running the asylum."[17]

Comparative study of science articles

Teaching, Criticism, and Praise: an analysis of talk-page messages for the Wikipedia Summer of Research (2011) convention.[18]

In "Internet Encyclopaedias Go Head-to-head", a 2005 article published in the Nature scientific journal, the results of a blind experiment (single-blind study), which compared the factual and informational accuracy of entries from Wikipedia and the Encyclopædia Britannica, were reported. The 42-entry sample included science articles and biographies of scientists, which were compared for accuracy by anonymous academic reviewers; they found that the average Wikipedia entry contained four errors and omissions, while the average Encyclopædia Britannica entry contained three errors and omissions. The study concluded that Wikipedia and Britannica were comparable in terms of the accuracy of its science entries".[19] Nevertheless, the reviewers had two principal criticisms of the Wikipedia science entries: (i) thematically confused content, without an intelligible structure (order, presentation, interpretation); and (ii) that undue weight is given to controversial, fringe theories about the subject matter.[20]

The dissatisfaction of the Encyclopædia Britannica editors led to Nature publishing additional survey documentation that substantiated the results of the comparative study.[21] Based upon the additional documents, Encyclopædia Britannica denied the validity of the study, stating it was flawed, because the Britannica extracts were compilations that sometimes included articles written for the youth version of the encyclopedia.[22] In turn, Nature acknowledged that some Britannica articles were compilations, but denied that such editorial details invalidated the conclusions of the comparative study of the science articles.[23]

The editors of Britannica also said that while the Nature study showed that the rate of error between the two encyclopedias was similar, the errors in a Wikipedia article usually were errors of fact, while the errors in a Britannica article were errors of omission. According to the editors of Britannica, Britannica was more accurate than Wikipedia in that respect.[22] Subsequently, Nature magazine rejected the Britannica response with a rebuttal of the editors' specific objections about the research method of the study.[24][25]

Lack of methodical fact-checking

Inaccurate information that is not obviously false may persist in Wikipedia for a long time before it is challenged. The most prominent cases reported by mainstream media involved biographies of living people.

American journalist John Seigenthaler, object of the Seigenthaler incident

The Wikipedia Seigenthaler biography incident demonstrated that the subject of a biographical article must sometimes fix blatant lies about his own life. In May 2005, an anonymous user edited the biographical article on American journalist and writer John Seigenthaler so that it contained several false and defamatory statements.[26][27] The inaccurate claims went unnoticed from May until September 2005 when they were discovered by Victor S. Johnson, Jr., a friend of Seigenthaler. Wikipedia content is often mirrored at sites such as, which means that incorrect information can be replicated alongside correct information through a number of web sources. Such information can develop a misleading authority because of its presence at such sites.[28]

In another example, on March 2, 2007, reported that then-New York Senator and former Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton, had been incorrectly listed for 20 months in her Wikipedia biography as valedictorian of her class of 1969 at Wellesley College, when in fact she was not (though she did speak at commencement).[29] The article included a link to the Wikipedia edit,[30] where the incorrect information was added on July 9, 2005. The inaccurate information was removed within 24 hours after the report appeared.[31]

Attempts to perpetrate hoaxes may not be confined to editing existing Wikipedia articles, but can also include creating new articles. In October 2005, Alan Mcilwraith, a former call center worker from Scotland, created a Wikipedia article in which he wrote that he was a highly decorated war hero. The article was quickly identified as a hoax by other users and deleted.[32]

There have also been instances of users deliberately inserting false information into Wikipedia in order to test the system and demonstrate its alleged unreliability. Gene Weingarten, a journalist, ran such a test in 2007, in which he inserted false information into his own Wikipedia article; it was removed 27 hours later by a Wikipedia editor.[33] Wikipedia considers the deliberate insertion of false and misleading information to be vandalism.[34]

Neutral point of view and conflicts of interest

Wikipedia regards the concept of a neutral point of view as one of its non-negotiable principles; however, it acknowledges that such a concept has its limitations—its NPOV policy states that articles should be "as far as possible" written "without editorial bias". Mark Glaser, a journalist, also wrote that this may be an impossible ideal due to the inevitable biases of editors.[35]

In August 2007, a tool called WikiScanner—developed by Virgil Griffith, a visiting researcher from the Santa Fe Institute in New Mexico—was released to match edits to the encyclopedia by non-registered users with an extensive database of IP addresses.[36] News stories appeared about IP addresses from various organizations such as the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Republican Congressional Committee, the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee, Diebold, Inc. and the Australian government being used to make edits to Wikipedia articles, sometimes of an opinionated or questionable nature. Another story stated that an IP address from the BBC itself had been used to vandalize the article on George W. Bush.[37] The BBC quoted a Wikipedia spokesperson as praising the tool: "We really value transparency and the scanner really takes this to another level. Wikipedia Scanner may prevent an organisation or individuals from editing articles that they're really not supposed to."[38] Not everyone hailed WikiScanner as a success for Wikipedia. Oliver Kamm, in a column for The Times, argued instead that:[7]

The WikiScanner is thus an important development in bringing down a pernicious influence on our intellectual life. Critics of the web decry the medium as the cult of the amateur. Wikipedia is worse than that; it is the province of the covert lobby. The most constructive course is to stand on the sidelines and jeer at its pretensions.

WikiScanner only reveals conflicts of interest when the editor does not have a Wikipedia account and their IP address is used instead. Conflict of interest editing done by editors with accounts is not detected, since those edits are anonymous to everyone except some Wikipedia administrators.[39]

Scientific disputes

The 2005 Nature study also gave two brief examples of challenges that Wikipedian science writers purportedly faced on Wikipedia. The first concerned the addition of a section on violence to the schizophrenia article, which exhibited the view of one of the article's regular editors, neuropsychologist Vaughan Bell, that it was little more than a "rant" about the need to lock people up, and that editing it stimulated him to look up the literature on the topic.[19]

Another dispute involved the climate researcher William Connolley, a Wikipedia editor who was opposed by others. The topic in this second dispute was the greenhouse effect, and The New Yorker reported that this dispute, which was far more protracted, had led to arbitration, which took three months to produce a decision. The outcome of arbitration, as reported by Nature, was a six-month parole for Connolley, during which he was restricted to undoing edits on articles once per day.[40]

Exposure to political operatives and advocates

While Wikipedia policy requires articles to have a neutral point of view, it is not immune from attempts by outsiders (or insiders) with an agenda to place a spin on articles. In January 2006 it was revealed that several staffers of members of the U.S. House of Representatives had embarked on a campaign to cleanse their respective bosses' biographies on Wikipedia, as well as inserting negative remarks on political opponents. References to a campaign promise by Martin Meehan to surrender his seat in 2000 were deleted, and negative comments were inserted into the articles on United States Senator Bill Frist and Eric Cantor, a congressman from Virginia. Numerous other changes were made from an IP address assigned to the House of Representatives.[41] In an interview, Wikipedia de facto leader Jimmy Wales remarked that the changes were "not cool".[42]

Larry Delay and Pablo Bachelet wrote that from their perspective, some articles dealing with Latin American history and groups (such as the Sandinistas and Cuba) lack political neutrality and are written from a sympathetic Marxist perspective which treats socialist dictatorships favorably at the expense of alternate positions.[43][44][45]

In 2008, the pro-Israel group Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America (CAMERA) organized an e-mail campaign to encourage readers to correct perceived Israel-related biases and inconsistencies in Wikipedia.[46] CAMERA argued the excerpts were unrepresentative and that it had explicitly campaigned merely "toward encouraging people to learn about and edit the online encyclopedia for accuracy".[47] Defenders of CAMERA and the competing group, Electronic Intifada, went into mediation.[46] Israeli diplomat David Saranga said that Wikipedia is generally fair in regard to Israel. When it was pointed out that the entry on Israel mentioned the word "occupation" nine times, whereas the entry on the Palestinian People mentioned "terror" only once, he responded, "It means only one thing: Israelis should be more active on Wikipedia. Instead of blaming it, they should go on the site much more, and try and change it."[48]

Political commentator Haviv Rettig Gur, reviewing widespread perceptions in Israel of systemic bias in Wikipedia articles, has argued that there are deeper structural problems creating this bias: anonymous editing favors biased results, especially if the editors organize concerted campaigns of defamation as has been done in articles dealing with Arab-Israeli issues, and current Wikipedia policies, while well-meant, have proven ineffective in handling this.[49]

On August 31, 2008, The New York Times ran an article detailing the edits made to the biography of Alaska governor Sarah Palin in the wake of her nomination as running mate of Arizona Senator John McCain. During the 24 hours before the McCain campaign announcement, 30 edits, many of them flattering details, were made to the article by Wikipedia single-purpose user identity Young_Trigg.[50] This person has later acknowledged working on the McCain campaign, and having several Wikipedia user accounts.[51]

In November 2007, libelous accusations were made against two politicians from southwestern France, Jean-Pierre Grand and Hélène Mandroux-Colas, on their Wikipedia biographies. Jean-Pierre Grand asked the president of the French National Assembly and the Prime Minister of France to reinforce the legislation on the penal responsibility of Internet sites and of authors who peddle false informations in order to cause harm.[52] Senator Jean Louis Masson then requested the Minister of Justice to tell him whether it would be possible to increase the criminal responsibilities of hosting providers, site operators, and authors of libelous content; the minister declined to do so, recalling the existing rules in the LCEN law.[53]

On August 25, 2010, the Toronto Star reported that the Canadian "government is now conducting two investigations into federal employees who have taken to Wikipedia to express their opinion on federal policies and bitter political debates."[54]

In 2010, Al Jazeera's Teymoor Nabili suggested that the article Cyrus Cylinder had been edited for political purposes by "an apparent tussle of opinions in the shadowy world of hard drives and 'independent' editors that comprise the Wikipedia industry." He suggested that after the Iranian presidential election, 2009 and the ensuing "anti-Iranian activities" a "strenuous attempt to portray the cylinder as nothing more than the propaganda tool of an aggressive invader" was visible. The edits following his analysis of the edits during 2009 and 2010, represented "a complete dismissal of the suggestion that the cylinder, or Cyrus' actions, represent concern for human rights or any kind of enlightened intent," in stark contrast to Cyrus' own reputation as documented in the Old Testament and the people of Babylon.[55]

Commandeering or sanitizing articles

Articles of particular interest to an editor or group of editors are sometimes modified based on these editors' respective points of views.[56] Some companies and organizations—such as Sony, Diebold, Nintendo, Dell, the United States' Central Intelligence Agency, and the Church of Scientology—as well as individuals, such as United States Congressional staffers, were all shown to have modified the Wikipedia pages about themselves in order to present a point of view that describes them positively; these organizations may have editors who revert negative changes as soon as these changes are submitted.[57][58]

Editing for financial rewards

In January 2007 Rick Jelliffe stated in a story carried by CBS[59] and IDG News Service[60][61] that Microsoft had offered him compensation in exchange for his future editorial services on Wikipedia's articles related to OOXML (Office Open Extensible Markup Language). A Microsoft spokesperson, quoted by CBS, commented that "Microsoft and the writer, Rick Jelliffe, had not determined a price and no money had changed hands—but they had agreed that the company would not be allowed to review his writing before submission". Also quoted by CBS, Jimmy Wales expressed his disapproval of Microsoft's involvement: "We were very disappointed to hear that Microsoft was taking that approach".

Quality of the presentation

Quality of articles on U.S. history

In the essay, “Can History be Open Source?: Wikipedia and the Future of the Past” (2006), the academic historian Roy Rosenzweig criticized the encyclopedic content and writing style used in Wikipedia, for not distinguishing subjects that are important from subjects that are merely sensational. That Wikipedia is “surprisingly accurate in reporting names, dates, and events in U.S. history”, and that most of the factual errors he found “were small and inconsequential”, some of which “simply repeat widely held, but inaccurate, beliefs”, which are also repeated in the Microsoft Encarta encyclopedia and in the Encyclopædia Britannica; yet Rosenzweig’s major criticism is that:

“Good historical writing requires not just factual accuracy but also a command of the scholarly literature, persuasive analysis and interpretations, and clear and engaging prose. By those measures, American National Biography Online easily outdistances Wikipedia.”[62]

Rosenzweig also criticized the “waffling—encouraged by the [neutral point of view] policy—[which] means that it is hard to discern any overall interpretive stance in Wikipedia history [articles]”, and quoted the historical conclusion of the biography of William Clarke Quantrill, a Confederate guerrilla in the United States Civil War, as an example of weasel-word waffling:

“Some historians . . . remember [Quantrill] as an opportunistic, bloodthirsty outlaw, while other [historians] continue to view him as a daring soldier and local folk hero.”[62]

In American National Biography Online, the historian James M. McPherson contrasted the content and writing style of Wikipedia's biography of United States President Abraham Lincoln to that of the U.S. Civil War article, and found that each entry was essentially accurate in covering the major episodes of President Lincoln’s life. The "richer contextualization" of McPherson's work, as well as "his artful use of quotations to capture Lincoln’s voice" and "his ability to convey a profound message in a handful of words," were contrasted with Wikipedia's history-article prose. The prose of the Wikipedia articles was "both verbose and dull" and thus difficult to read, because "the skill and confident judgment of a seasoned historian” are absent from the antiquarian writing style of Wikipedia, as opposed to the writing style used by professional historians in the American Heritage magazine. It was also mentioned that while Wikipedia usually provides many references, these are not the most accurate references.[62]

Quality of medical articles

In the article "Wikipedia Cancer Information Accurate," a study of medical articles, Yaacov Lawrence of the Kimmel Cancer Center of Thomas Jefferson University found that the cancer entries were mostly accurate. However, Wikipedia's articles were written in college-level prose, as opposed to in the easier-to-understand ninth-grade-level prose found in the Physician Data Query (PDQ) of the National Cancer Institute. According to Lawrence, "Wikipedia’s lack of readability may reflect its varied origins and haphazard editing.”[63]

In its 2007 article "Fact or Fiction? Wikipedia’s Variety of Contributors is Not Only a Strength," the magazine The Economist stated that the quality of the writing in Wikipedia articles usually indicates the quality of the editorial content: "Inelegant or ranting prose usually reflects muddled thoughts and incomplete information.”[64]

The Wall Street Journal debate

In the September 12, 2006, edition of The Wall Street Journal, Jimmy Wales debated with Dale Hoiberg, editor-in-chief of Encyclopædia Britannica.[65] Hoiberg focused on a need for expertise and control in an encyclopedia and cited Lewis Mumford that overwhelming information could "bring about a state of intellectual enervation and depletion hardly to be distinguished from massive ignorance." Wales emphasized Wikipedia's differences, and asserted that openness and transparency lead to quality. Hoiberg said that he "had neither the time nor space to respond to [criticisms]" and "could corral any number of links to articles alleging errors in Wikipedia", to which Wales responded: "No problem! Wikipedia to the rescue with a fine article", and included a link to the Wikipedia article about criticism of Wikipedia.[65]

Systemic bias in coverage

Wikipedia has been accused of systemic bias, which is to say its general nature leads, without necessarily any conscious intention, to the propagation of various prejudices. Although many articles in newspapers have concentrated on minor factual errors in Wikipedia articles, there are also concerns about large-scale, presumably unintentional effects from the increasing influence and use of Wikipedia as a research tool at all levels. In an article in the Times Higher Education magazine (London) philosopher Martin Cohen describes Wikipedia as having "become a monopoly" with "all the prejudices and ignorance of its creators," which he calls a "youthful cab-driver's" perspective.[66] Cohen concludes that "[t]o control the reference sources that people use is to control the way people comprehend the world. Wikipedia may have a benign, even trivial face, but underneath may lie a more sinister and subtle threat to freedom of thought."[66] That freedom is undermined by what he sees as what matters on Wikipedia, "not your sources but the 'support of the community'."[66]

Critics also point to the tendency to cover topics in a detail disproportionate to their importance. For example, Stephen Colbert once mockingly praised Wikipedia for having a "longer entry on 'lightsabers' than it does on the 'printing press'."[67] In an interview with The Guardian, Dale Hoiberg, the editor-in-chief of Encyclopædia Britannica, noted:[15]

People write of things they're interested in, and so many subjects don't get covered; and news events get covered in great detail. In the past, the entry on Hurricane Frances was more than five times the length of that on Chinese art, and the entry on Coronation Street was twice as long as the article on Tony Blair.

This critical approach has been satirised as "Wikigroaning", a term coined by Jon Hendren[68] of the website Something Awful.[69] In the game, two articles (preferably with similar names) are compared: one about an acknowledged, serious, or classical subject and the other about a popular or current one.[70] Defenders of a broad inclusion criteria have held that the encyclopedia's coverage of pop culture does not impose space constraints on the coverage of more serious subjects (see "Wiki is not paper"). As Ivor Tossell noted:

That Wikipedia is chock full of useless arcana (and did you know, by the way, that the article on "Debate" is shorter than the piece that weighs the relative merits of the 1978 and 2003 versions of Battlestar Galactica?) isn't a knock against it: Since it can grow infinitely, the silly articles aren't depriving the serious ones of space.[71]

In 2014, supporters of holistic healing and energy psychology began a petition asking for "true scientific discourse" on Wikipedia, complaining that "much of the information [on Wikipedia] related to holistic approaches to healing is biased, misleading, out-of-date, or just plain wrong". In response, Jimmy Wales said that Wikipedia only covers works that are published in respectable scientific journals.[72][73]

Notability of article topics

Wikipedia's notability guidelines, which are used by editors to determine if a subject merits its own article, and the application thereof, are the subject of much criticism.[74] Nicholson Baker considers the notability standards arbitrary and essentially unsolvable:[75]

There are quires, reams, bales of controversy over what constitutes notability in Wikipedia: nobody will ever sort it out.

Criticizing the "deletionists", Baker then writes:[74]

Still, a lot of good work—verifiable, informative, brain-leapingly strange—is being cast out of this paperless, infinitely expandable accordion folder by people who have a narrow, almost grade-schoolish notion of what sort of curiosity an on-line encyclopedia will be able to satisfy in the years to come. [...] It's harder to improve something that's already written, or to write something altogether new, especially now that so many of the World Book-sanctioned encyclopedic fruits are long plucked. There are some people on Wikipedia now who are just bullies, who take pleasure in wrecking and mocking peoples' work—even to the point of laughing at nonstandard "Engrish". They poke articles full of warnings and citation-needed notes and deletion prods till the topics go away.

Another criticism about the deletionists is: "The increasing difficulty of making a successful edit; the exclusion of casual users; slower growth—all are hallmarks of the deletionists approach."[76]

Complaining that his own biography was on the verge of deletion for lack of notability, Timothy Noah argued that:

Wikipedia's notability policy resembles U.S. immigration policy before 9/11: stringent rules, spotty enforcement. To be notable, a Wikipedia topic must be "the subject of multiple, non-trivial published works from sources that are reliable and independent of the subject and of each other." Although I have written or been quoted in such works, I can't say I've ever been the subject of any. And wouldn't you know, some notability cop cruised past my bio and pulled me over. Unless I get notable in a hurry—win the Nobel Peace Prize? Prove I sired Anna Nicole Smith's baby daughter?—a "sysop" (volunteer techie) will wipe my Wikipedia page clean. It's straight out of Philip K. Dick.[77]

In the same article, Noah mentions that the Pulitzer Prize-winning writer Stacy Schiff was not considered notable enough for a Wikipedia entry before she wrote an extensive New Yorker article on Wikipedia itself.


There have been suggestions that a politically liberal viewpoint is predominant. According to Jimmy Wales: "The Wikipedia community is very diverse, from liberal to conservative to libertarian and beyond. If averages mattered, and due to the nature of the wiki software (no voting) they almost certainly don't, I would say that the Wikipedia community is slightly more liberal than the U.S. population on average, because we are global and the international community of English speakers is slightly more liberal than the U.S. population. There are no data or surveys to back that."[78] Andrew Schlafly created Conservapedia because of his perception that Wikipedia contained a liberal bias.[79] Conservapedia's editors have compiled a list of alleged examples of liberal bias in Wikipedia.[80] In 2007, an article in The Christian Post criticised Wikipedia's coverage of intelligent design, saying that it was biased and hypocritical.[81] Lawrence Solomon of the National Review considered the Wikipedia articles on subjects like global warming, intelligent design, and Roe v. Wade all to be slanted in favor of liberal views.[82]

In a September 2010 issue of the conservative weekly Human Events, Rowan Scarborough presented a critique of Wikipedia's coverage of American politicians prominent in the approaching midterm elections as evidence of systemic liberal bias.[83] Scarborough compares the biographical articles of liberal and conservative opponents in Senate races in the Alaska Republican primary and the Delaware and Nevada general election, emphasizing the quantity of negative coverage of Tea Party-endorsed candidates. He also cites some criticism by Lawrence Solomon and quotes in full the lead section of Wikipedia's article on its rival Conservapedia as evidence of an underlying bias.

In 2012, Shane Greenstein and Feng Zhu analyzed Wikipedia articles on U.S. politics, going back a decade, and wrote a study[84] arguing the more contributors there were to an article, the less biased the article would be, and that based on a study of frequent collocations fewer articles "leaned Democrat" than was the case in Wikipedia's early years.[85][86]

American and corporate bias

In 2008, Tim Anderson, a senior lecturer in political economy at the University of Sydney, said that Wikipedia administrators display an American-focused bias in their interactions with editors and their determinations of which sources are appropriate for use on the site. Anderson was outraged after several of the sources he used in his edits to the Hugo Chávez article, including Venezuela Analysis and Z Magazine, were disallowed as "unusable". Anderson also described Wikipedia's neutral point of view policy to ZDNet Australia as "a facade" and that Wikipedia "hides behind a reliance on corporate media editorials".[87]

Racial bias

Wikipedia has been criticized for having a systemic racial bias in its coverage, due to an under-representation of people of colour within its editor base.[88] The President of Wikimedia D.C., James Hare, noted that "a lot of black history is left out" of Wikipedia, due to articles predominately being written by white editors.[89] Articles that do exist on African topics are, according to some critics, largely edited by editors from Europe and North America and thus reflect their knowledge and consumption of media, which "tend to perpetuate a negative image" of Africa.[90] Maira Liriano of the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, has argued that the lack of information regarding black history on Wikipedia "makes it seem like it's not important."[91] San Francisco Poet Laureate Alejandro Murguía has stressed how it is important for Latinos to be part of Wikipedia "because it is a major source of where people get their information."[92]

Gender bias and sexism

Former Wikimedia Foundation executive Sue Gardner has listed reasons offered by some women in "Why Women Don't Edit Wikipedia"[93]

Wikipedia has a longstanding controversy concerning gender bias and sexism.[94][95][96][97][98][99] Gender bias on Wikipedia refers to the finding that between 84 and 91 percent of Wikipedia editors are male,[100][101] which allegedly leads to systemic bias.[102] Wikipedia has been criticized[94] by some journalists and academics for lacking not only women contributors but also extensive and in-depth encyclopedic attention to many topics regarding gender. Sue Gardner, the former executive director of the foundation, said that increasing diversity was about making the encyclopedia "as good as it could be". Factors the article cited as possibly discouraging women from editing included the "obsessive fact-loving realm", associations with the "hard-driving hacker crowd", and the necessity to be "open to very difficult, high-conflict people, even misogynists."[95] In 2011, the Wikimedia Foundation set a goal of increasing the proportion of female contributors to 25 percent by 2015.[95] In August 2013, Gardner conceded defeat: "I didn't solve it. We didn't solve it. The Wikimedia Foundation didn't solve it. The solution won't come from the Wikimedia Foundation."[103] In August 2014, Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales acknowledged in a BBC interview the failure of Wikipedia to fix the gender gap and announced the Wikimedia Foundation's plans for "doubling down" on the issue. Wales said the Foundation would be open to more outreach and more software changes.[104]

Sexual content

Wikipedia has been criticized for allowing graphic sexual content such as images and videos of masturbation and ejaculation as well as photos from hardcore pornographic films found on its articles. Child protection campaigners say graphic sexual content appears on many Wikipedia entries, displayed without any warning or age verification.[105]

The Wikipedia article Virgin Killer—a 1976 album from German heavy metal band Scorpions—features a picture of the album's original cover, which depicts a naked prepubescent girl. In December 2008, the Internet Watch Foundation, a nonprofit, nongovernment-affiliated organization, added the article to its blacklist, criticizing the inclusion of the picture as "distasteful". As a result, access to the article was blocked for four days by most Internet service providers in the United Kingdom.[106]

In April 2010, Larry Sanger, a co-founder of Wikipedia who had left the organization eight years previously, wrote a letter to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, outlining his concerns that two categories of images on Wikimedia Commons contained child pornography, and were in violation of United States federal obscenity law. Sanger also expressed concerns about access to the images on Wikipedia in schools.[107] Sanger later said that it was probably not correct to call it "child pornography", which most people associate with images of real children, and that he should have said "depictions of child sexual abuse".[108] Wikimedia Foundation spokesman Jay Walsh said that Wikipedia doesn't have "material we would deem to be illegal. If we did, we would remove it."[107] Following the complaint by Larry Sanger, Jimmy Wales deleted many sexual images without consulting the community; some were reinstated following discussion.[109] Critics, including Wikipediocracy, noticed that many of the sexual images deleted from Wikipedia since 2010 have reappeared.[110]

Exposure to vandals

Vandalism of a Wikipedia article (Sponge)

As an online encyclopedia which almost anyone can edit, Wikipedia has long had problems with vandalism of articles, which range from "blanking" articles to inserting profanities, hoaxes or nonsense. Wikipedia has a range of tools available to users and administrators in order to fight against vandalism, including blocking and banning of vandals and automated bots that detect and repair vandalism. Supporters of the project argue that the vast majority of vandalism on Wikipedia is reverted within a short time, and a study by Fernanda Viégas of the MIT Media Lab and Martin Wattenberg and Kushal Dave of IBM Research found that most vandal edits were reverted within around five minutes; however they state that "it is essentially impossible to find a crisp definition of vandalism".[111] While most instances of page blanking or the addition of offensive material are soon reverted, less obvious vandalism, or vandalism to a little viewed article, has remained for longer periods.

A 2007 peer-reviewed study[112] that measured the actual number of page views with "damaged" content, concluded:

42% of damage is repaired almost immediately, i.e., before it can confuse, offend, or mislead anyone. Nonetheless, there are still hundreds of millions of damaged views.

Privacy concerns

Most privacy concerns refer to cases of government or employer data gathering; or to computer or electronic monitoring; or to trading data between organizations. "The Internet has created conflicts between personal privacy, commercial interests and the interests of society at large" warn James Donnelly and Jenifer Haeckl.[113] Balancing the rights of all concerned as technology alters the social landscape will not be easy. It "is not yet possible to anticipate the path of the common law or governmental regulation" regarding this problem.[113]

The concern in the case of Wikipedia is the right of a private citizen to remain private; to remain a "private citizen" rather than a "public figure" in the eyes of the law.[114] It is somewhat of a battle between the right to be anonymous in cyberspace and the right to be anonymous in real life ("meatspace"). Wikipedia Watch argues that "Wikipedia is a potential menace to anyone who values privacy" and that "a greater degree of accountability in the Wikipedia structure" would be "the very first step toward resolving the privacy problem."[115] A particular problem occurs in the case of an individual who is relatively unimportant and for whom there exists a Wikipedia page against their wishes.

In 2005 Agence France-Presse quoted Daniel Brandt, the Wikipedia Watch owner, as saying that "the basic problem is that no one, neither the trustees of Wikimedia Foundation, nor the volunteers who are connected with Wikipedia, consider themselves responsible for the content."[116]

In January 2006, a German court ordered the German Wikipedia shut down within Germany because it stated the full name of Boris Floricic, aka "Tron", a deceased hacker who was formerly with the Chaos Computer Club. More specifically, the court ordered that the URL within the German .de domain ( may no longer redirect to the encyclopedia's servers in Florida at although German readers were still able to use the US-based URL directly, and there was virtually no loss of access on their part. The court order arose out of a lawsuit filed by Floricic's parents, demanding that their son's surname be removed from Wikipedia. On February 9, 2006, the injunction against Wikimedia Deutschland was overturned, with the court rejecting the notion that Tron's right to privacy or that of his parents were being violated.[117]

Criticism of the community

Role of Jimmy Wales

The community of Wikipedia editors has been criticized for placing an irrational emphasis on Jimmy Wales as a person. Wales's role in personally determining the content of some articles has also been criticized as contrary to the independent spirit that Wikipedia supposedly has gained.[118][119] In early 2007, Wales dismissed the criticism of the Wikipedia model: "I am unaware of any problems with the quality of discourse on the site. I don't know of any higher-quality discourse anywhere."[120][121][122][123][124]

Conflict of interest cases

A Business Insider article wrote about a controversy in September 2012 where two Wikimedia Foundation employees were found to have been "running a PR business on the side and editing Wikipedia on behalf of their clients."[125]

Unfair treatment of female contributors

Some female editors have stated that they have been harassed by male editors.[126]

The English Wikipedia Arbitration Committee has been criticized as unfairly targeting female and feminist editors.[126]

In an article for Slate, David Auerbach criticized the decisions made by the Arbitration Committee, in a December 2014 case centered around the site's Gender Gap Task Force. Auerbach was critical of the committee's decision to permanently ban a female editor involved in the case, while not banning her male "chief antagonists", stating "With the Arbitration Committee opting only to ban the one woman in the dispute despite her behavior being no worse than that of the men, it's hard not to see this as a setback to Wikipedia's efforts to rectify its massive gender gap."[127]

In January 2015, The Guardian reported that the Arbitration Committee had banned five feminist editors from gender-related articles on a case related to the Gamergate controversy, while including quotes from a Wikipedia editor alleging unfair treatment.[128][129] Other commentators, including from Gawker and ThinkProgress, provided additional analysis while sourcing from The Guardian's story.[129][130][131][132][133] Reports in The Washington Post, Slate and Social Text described these articles as "flawed" or factually inaccurate, pointing out that the Arbitration case had not concluded as at the time of publishing; no editor had been banned.[129][134][135] After the result was published, Gawker wrote that "ArbCom ruled to punish six editors who could be broadly classified as 'anti-Gamergate' and five who are 'pro-Gamergate'." All of the supposed "Five Horsemen" were among the editors punished, with one of them being the sole editor banned due to this case.[136] An article called "ArbitrationGate" regarding this situation was created (and quickly deleted) on Wikipedia, while The Guardian later issued a correction to their article.[129] The Committee and the Wikimedia Foundation issued press statements that the Gamergate case was in response to the atmosphere of the Gamergate article resembling a "battlefield" due to "various sides of the discussion [having] violated community policies and guidelines on conduct", and that the Committee was fulfilling its role to "uphold a civil, constructive atmosphere" on Wikipedia. The Committee also wrote that it "does not rule on the content of articles, or make judgements on the personal views of parties to the case".[134][137] Michael Mandiberg, writing in Social Text, remained unconvinced.[135]

Lack of verifiable identities

Scandals involving administrators and arbitrators

David Boothroyd, a Wikipedia editor and a Labour Party (United Kingdom) member, created controversy in 2009, when Wikipedia Review contributor "Tarantino" discovered that he committed sockpuppeting, editing under the accounts "Dbiv", "Fys", and "Sam Blacketer", none of which acknowledged his real identity. After earning Administrator status with one account, then losing it for inappropriate use of the administrative tools, Boothroyd regained Administrator status with the Sam Blacketer sockpuppet account in April 2007. Later in 2007, Boothroyd's Sam Blacketer account became part of the English Wikipedia's Arbitration Committee. Under the Sam Blacketer account, Boothroyd edited many articles related to United Kingdom politics, including that of rival Conservative Party leader David Cameron.[138][139] Boothroyd then resigned as an administrator and as an arbitrator.[140][141]

Essjay controversy
Main article: Essjay controversy

In July 2006 The New Yorker ran a feature about Wikipedia by Stacy Schiff about a highly credentialed Wikipedia editor.[142] The initial version of the article included an interview with a Wikipedia administrator known by the pseudonym Essjay, who was described as a tenured professor of theology.[143] Essjay's Wikipedia user page, now removed, said the following:

I am a tenured professor of theology at a private university in the eastern United States; I teach both undergraduate and graduate theology. I have been asked repeatedly to reveal the name of the institution, however, I decline to do so; I am unsure of the consequences of such an action, and believe it to be in my best interests to remain anonymous.

Essjay also stated that he held four academic degrees: Bachelor of Arts in Religious Studies (B.A.), Master of Arts in Religion (M.A.R.), Doctorate of Philosophy in Theology (Ph.D.), and Doctorate in Canon Law (JCD). Essjay specialized in editing articles about religion on Wikipedia, including subjects such as "the penitential rite, transubstantiation, the papal tiara";[142] on one occasion he was called in to give some "expert testimony" on the status of Mary in the Roman Catholic Church.[144] In January 2007, Essjay was hired as a manager with Wikia, a wiki-hosting service founded by Wales and Angela Beesley. In February, Wales appointed Essjay as a member of the Wikipedia Arbitration Committee, a group with powers to issue binding rulings in disputes relating to Wikipedia.[145]

Wikipedia co-founder Larry Sanger, who left Wikipedia to found Citizendium

In late February 2007 The New Yorker added an editorial note to its article on Wikipedia stating that it had learned that Essjay was Ryan Jordan, a 24-year-old college dropout from Kentucky with no advanced degrees and no teaching experience.[146] Initially Jimmy Wales commented on the issue of Essjay's identity: "I regard it as a pseudonym and I don't really have a problem with it." Larry Sanger, co-founder[147][148][149] of Wikipedia, responded to Wales on his Citizendium blog by calling Wales' initial reaction "utterly breathtaking, and ultimately tragic." Sanger said the controversy "reflects directly on the judgment and values of the management of Wikipedia."[150]

Wales later issued a new statement saying he had not previously understood that "EssJay used his false credentials in content disputes." He added: "I have asked EssJay to resign his positions of trust within the [Wikipedia] community."[151] Sanger responded the next day: "It seems Jimmy finds nothing wrong, nothing trust-violating, with the act itself of openly and falsely touting many advanced degrees on Wikipedia. But there most obviously is something wrong with it, and it's just as disturbing for Wikipedia's head to fail to see anything wrong with it."[152]

On March 4, Essjay wrote on his user page that he was leaving Wikipedia, and he also resigned his position with Wikia.[153] A subsequent article in The Courier-Journal (Louisville) suggested that the new résumé he had posted at his Wikia page was exaggerated.[154] The March 19, 2007 issue of The New Yorker published a formal apology by Wales to the magazine and Stacy Schiff for Essjay's false statements.[155]

Discussing the incident, the New York Times noted that the Wikipedia community had responded to the affair with "the fury of the crowd", and observed:

The Essjay episode underlines some of the perils of collaborative efforts like Wikipedia that rely on many contributors acting in good faith, often anonymously and through self-designated user names. But it also shows how the transparency of the Wikipedia process—all editing of entries is marked and saved—allows readers to react to suspected fraud.[156]

The Essjay incident received extensive media coverage, including a national United States television broadcast on ABC's World News with Charles Gibson[157] and the March 7, 2007, Associated Press story.[158] The controversy has led to a proposal that users who say that they possess academic qualifications should have to provide evidence before citing them in Wikipedia content disputes.[159] The proposal was not accepted.[160]


Wikipedia has been criticised for allowing editors to contribute anonymously (without a registered account and using an auto-generated IP-labeled account) or pseudonymously (using a registered account), with critics saying that this leads to a lack of accountability.[124][161] This also sometimes leads to uncivil conduct in debates between Wikipedians.[124][161] For privacy reasons, Wikipedia even forbids editors to reveal information about an anonymous editor on Wikipedia. A whistleblower in violation of this policy may be banned from Wikipedia.[162]

Editorial process

Level of debate, edit wars and harassment

The standard of debate on Wikipedia has been called into question by persons who have noted that contributors can make a long list of salient points and pull in a wide range of empirical observations to back up their arguments, only to have them ignored completely on the site.[163] An academic study of Wikipedia articles found that the level of debate among Wikipedia editors on controversial topics often degenerated into counterproductive squabbling:

For uncontroversial, "stable" topics self-selection also ensures that members of editorial groups are substantially well-aligned with each other in their interests, backgrounds, and overall understanding of the topics ... For controversial topics, on the other hand, self-selection may produce a strongly misaligned editorial group. It can lead to conflicts among the editorial group members, continuous edit wars, and may require the use of formal work coordination and control mechanisms. These may include intervention by administrators who enact dispute review and mediation processes, [or] completely disallow or limit and coordinate the types and sources of edits.[164]

In 2008, a team from the Palo Alto Research Center found that for editors that make between two and nine edits a month, the percentage of their edits being reverted had gone from 5% in 2004 to about 15%, and people who only make one edit a month were being reverted at a 25% rate.[165] According to The Economist magazine (2008), "The behaviour of Wikipedia's self-appointed deletionist guardians, who excise anything that does not meet their standards, justifying their actions with a blizzard of acronyms, is now known as "wiki-lawyering".[166] In regards to the decline in the number of Wikipedia editors since the 2007 policy changes, another study stated this was partly down to the way "in which newcomers are rudely greeted by automated quality control systems and are overwhelmed by the complexity of the rule system."[167]

Another complaint about Wikipedia focuses on the efforts of contributors with idiosyncratic beliefs, who push their point of view in an effort to dominate articles, especially controversial ones.[168][169] This sometimes results in revert wars and pages being locked down. In response, an Arbitration Committee has been formed on the English Wikipedia that deals with the worst alleged offenders—though a conflict resolution strategy is actively encouraged before going to this extent. Also, to stop the continuous reverting of pages, Jimmy Wales introduced a "three-revert rule", whereby those users who reverse the effect of others' contributions to one article more than three times in a 24-hour period may be blocked.

In a 2008 article in The Brooklyn Rail, Wikipedia contributor David Shankbone contended that he had been harassed and stalked because of his work on Wikipedia, had received no support from the authorities or the Wikimedia Foundation, and only mixed support from the Wikipedia community. Shankbone wrote, "If you become a target on Wikipedia, do not expect a supportive community."[170]

David Auerbach, writing in Slate magazine, said:

I am not exaggerating when I say it is the closest thing to Kafka’s The Trial I have ever witnessed, with editors and administrators giving conflicting and confusing advice, complaints getting "boomeranged" onto complainants who then face disciplinary action for complaining, and very little consistency in the standards applied. In my short time there, I repeatedly observed editors lawyering an issue with acronyms, only to turn around and declare "Ignore all rules!" when faced with the same rules used against them. (...) The problem instead stems from the fact that administrators and longtime editors have developed a fortress mentality in which they see new editors as dangerous intruders who will wreck their beautiful encyclopedia, and thus antagonize and even persecute them.[171]

Consensus and the "hive mind"

Oliver Kamm, in an article for The Times, said that Wikipedia's reliance on consensus in forming its content was dubious:[7]

Wikipedia seeks not truth but consensus, and like an interminable political meeting the end result will be dominated by the loudest and most persistent voices.

Wikimedia advisor Benjamin Mako Hill also talked about Wikipedia's disproportional representation of viewpoints, saying:

In Wikipedia, debates can be won by stamina. If you care more and argue longer, you will tend to get your way. The result, very often, is that individuals and organizations with a very strong interest in having Wikipedia say a particular thing tend to win out over other editors who just want the encyclopedia to be solid, neutral, and reliable. These less-committed editors simply have less at stake and their attention is more distributed.[172]

Wikimedia steward Dariusz Jemielniak says:

Tiring out one's opponent is a common strategy among experienced Wikipedians [...] I have resorted to it many times.[173]

In his article, "Digital Maoism: The Hazards of the New Online Collectivism" (first published online by Edge: The Third Culture, 30 May 2006), computer scientist and digital theorist Jaron Lanier describes Wikipedia as a "hive mind" that is "for the most part stupid and boring", and asks, rhetorically, "why pay attention to it?" His thesis says:

The problem is in the way the Wikipedia has come to be regarded and used; how it's been elevated to such importance so quickly. And that is part of the larger pattern of the appeal of a new online collectivism that is nothing less than a resurgence of the idea that the collective is all-wise, that it is desirable to have influence concentrated in a bottleneck that can channel the collective with the most verity and force. This is different from representative democracy, or meritocracy. This idea has had dreadful consequences when thrust upon us from the extreme Right or the extreme Left in various historical periods. The fact that it's now being re-introduced today by prominent technologists and futurists, people who in many cases I know and like, doesn't make it any less dangerous.[174]

Lanier also says the economic trend to reward entities that aggregate information, rather than those that actually generate content. In the absence of "new business models", the popular demand for content will be sated by mediocrity, thus reducing or even eliminating any monetary incentives for the production of new knowledge.[174]

Lanier's opinions produced some strong disagreement. Internet consultant Clay Shirky noted that Wikipedia has many internal controls in place and is not a mere mass of unintelligent collective effort:

Neither proponents nor detractors of hive mind rhetoric have much interesting to say about Wikipedia itself, because both groups ignore the details... Wikipedia is best viewed as an engaged community that uses a large and growing number of regulatory mechanisms to manage a huge set of proposed edits... To take the specific case of Wikipedia, the Seigenthaler/Kennedy debacle catalyzed both soul-searching and new controls to address the problems exposed, and the controls included, inter alia, a greater focus on individual responsibility, the very factor "Digital Maoism" denies is at work.[175]

Excessive rule-making

Kat Walsh, a former chair of the Wikimedia Foundation, has criticized Wikipedia's increasingly complex policies, saying "It was easier when I joined in 2004... Everything was a little less complicated.... It's harder and harder for new people to adjust."[176] According to a top Wikipedia administrator Oliver Moran, "policy creep" is "the real barrier".[177]

In his 2014 book, Common Knowledge?: An Ethnography of Wikipedia, Jemielniak, the Wikimedia steward, states that the sheer complexity of the rules and laws governing content and editor behavior has become excessive and creates a learning burden for new editors.[2][178] Jemielniak also suggests actively abridging and rewriting the rules and laws to fall within a fixed and reasonable limit of size and complexity to remedy their excessive complexity and size.[2][178]

In 2013, a study by Aaron Halfaker of the University of Minnesota stated that Wikipedia's rules have had the unintended effect of driving away new contributors to the site.[12]

Social stratification

Despite the perception that the Wikipedia process is democratic, "a small number of people are running the show"[179] (a partial list of these titled people includes administrators, bureaucrats, stewards, checkusers, mediators, arbitrators, and oversighters).[11] In an article on Wikipedia conflicts in 2007, The Guardian discussed "a backlash among some editors, who say that blocking users compromises the supposedly open nature of the project and the imbalance of power between users and administrators may even be a reason some users choose to vandalize in the first place" based on the experiences of one editor who became a vandal after his edits were reverted and he was blocked for edit warring.[180]

See also


  2. 1 2 3 4 Jemielniak, Dariusz (2014). Common Knowledge?: An Ethnography of Wikipedia. Stanford University Press.
  3. Pete Forsyth; Milowent (November 4, 2016). "Washington Post leads the pack in this edition's roundup of media stories". Signpost. Retrieved November 6, 2016.
  4. 1 2 Alcantara, Chris (November 6, 2016). "Wikipedia editors are essentially writing the election guide millions of voters will read". Washington Post. Retrieved November 6, 2016. note: the title provided is the social media sharing og:title (meta title), the article title as it appears *after* clicking is: "The most challenging job of the 2016 race: Editing the candidates’ Wikipedia pages", quote: "Wikipedia editors, many of whom are unpaid and live across the globe, take it upon themselves to manage every word, link and image published to Trump’s and Clinton’s biographical and campaign pages."
  5. "Wikipedia: Broken, Biased, and Corrupt". Heartland Institute. Retrieved November 6, 2016.
  6. Black, Edwin (2010-04-19). "Wikipedia—The Dumbing Down of World Knowledge". History News Network. Retrieved 2014-10-21.
  7. 1 2 3 Kamm, Oliver. "Wisdom? More like dumbness of the crowds". The Times. Archived from the original on 2011-08-14. (Author's own copy)
  8. 1 2 Messer-Kruse, Timothy (2012-02-12). "The 'Undue Weight' of Truth on Wikipedia". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
  9. Colón-Aguirre, Monica; Fleming-May, Rachel A. (2012-10-11). "'You Just Type in What You Are Looking For': Undergraduates' Use of Library Resources vs. Wikipedia" (pdf). The Journal of Academic Librarianship. p. 392. Retrieved 2014-03-27.
  10. "Wikipedia Experience Sparks National Debate". The BG News. Bowling Green State University. 2012-02-27. Retrieved 2014-03-27.
  11. 1 2 3 Jemielniak, Dariusz (22 June 2014). "The Unbearable Bureaucracy of Wikipedia: the legalistic atmosphere is making it impossible to attract and keep the new editors the site needs". Slate. Retrieved 18 September 2016.
  12. 1 2 Vergano, Dan (2013-01-03). "Study: Wikipedia is driving away newcomers". USA Today. Retrieved 2014-11-19.
  13. Petrilli, Michael J. "Wikipedia or Wickedpedia?". Education Next. Retrieved 2014-10-22.
  14. "Citing Electronic Sources". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  15. 1 2 Waldman, Simon (2004-10-26). "Who knows?". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 30 December 2005.
  16. Vallely, Paul (10 October 2006). "The Big Question: Do we Need a More Reliable Online Encyclopedia than Wikipedia?". The Independent. London. Retrieved 18 October 2006.
  17. Schwartz, Zach (11 November 2015). "Wikipedia's Co-Founder Is Wikipedia's Most Outspoken Critic". Vice.
  18. "Research:Wikimedia Summer of Research 2011/Newbie teaching strategy trends". 2011-06-03. Retrieved 2013-12-06.
  19. 1 2 Giles, Jim (2005-12-15). "Internet Encyclopaedias Go Head to Head". Nature. 438 (7070): 900–901. doi:10.1038/438900a. PMID 16355180.
  20. "Wikipedia head to head with Britannica". ABC Science. Agence France-Presse (AFP). 15 December 2005.
  21. "Supplementary Information to Accompany Nature news article 'Internet Encyclopaedias Go Head to Head'" (doc). Nature. 22 December 2005. pp. 900–901. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
  22. 1 2 "Fatally Flawed: Refuting the Recent Study on Encyclopaedic Accuracy by the journal Nature" (PDF). Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. March 2006. Retrieved 30 June 2009.
  23. "Britannica attacks". Nature. 440 (7084): 582. 2006-03-30. doi:10.1038/440582b. PMID 16572128. Retrieved 2006-07-14.
  24. "Wikipedia study 'fatally flawed'". BBC News. 2006-03-24.
  25. "Encyclopædia Britannica and Nature: A Response" (PDF). Press release. 2006-03-23.
  26. John Seigenthaler (2005-11-29). "A false Wikipedia 'biography'". USA Today.
  27. Seelye, Katharine Q. (2005-12-03). "Snared in the Web of a Wikipedia Liar". The New York Times.
  28. "Mistakes and hoaxes on-line". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2006-04-15. Retrieved 2007-04-28.
  29. Dedman, Bill (2007-03-03). "Reading Hillary Clinton's hidden thesis". MSNBC. Retrieved 2007-03-17.
  30. "Hillary Rodham Clinton [archived version]". 2005-07-09. Retrieved 2007-03-17.
  31. "Hillary Rodham Clinton [archived version]". 2007-03-02. Retrieved 2007-03-17.
  32. Paige, Cara (2006-04-11). "Exclusive: Meet the Real Sir Walter Mitty". Daily Record. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-24.
  33. Weingarten, Gene (2007-03-16). "A wickedly fun test of Wikipedia". The News & Observer. Archived from the original on 2007-03-20. Retrieved 2006-04-08.
  34. "Wikipedia:Vandalism [archived version]". 2009-11-24.
  35. Mark Glaser (2006-04-17). "Wikipedia Bias: Is There a Neutral View on George W. Bush?". PBS. Retrieved 2007-10-27. The search for a 'neutral point of view' mirrors the efforts of journalists to be objective, to show both sides without taking sides and remaining unbiased. But maybe this is impossible and unattainable, and perhaps misguided. Because if you open it up for anyone to edit, you're asking for anything but neutrality.
  36. Verkaik, Robert (2007-08-18). "Wikipedia and the art of censorship". The Independent. London.
  37. Blakely, Rhys (2007-08-15). "Exposed: guess who has been polishing their Wikipedia entries?". The Times. London. Retrieved 2007-08-15.
  38. Fildes, Jonathan (2007-08-15). "Wikipedia 'shows CIA page edits'". BBC. Retrieved 2007-08-15.
  39. Metz, Cade (2007-12-18). "Truth, anonymity and the Wikipedia Way: Why it's broke and how it can be fixed". The Register.
  40. Schiff, Stacy (2006-07-31). "Know It All". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2014-03-12.
  41. Lehmann, Evan (2006-01-27). "Rewriting history under the dome". Lowell Sun. Archived from the original on 2006-02-02. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
  42. "Senator staffers spam Wikipedia". 2006-01-30. Retrieved 2006-09-13.
  43. Bachelet, Pablo (2006-05-03). "War of Words: Website Can't Define Cuba". The Miami Herald. Archived from the original on 2015-08-30.
  44. Sanchez, Matt (2008-05-14). "Wiki-Whacked by Political Bias". Retrieved 2008-07-08.
  45. Delay, Larry (2006-08-03). "A Pernicious Model for Control of the World Wide Web: The Cuba Case" (PDF). Association for the Study of the Cuban Economy (ASCE). Retrieved 2008-07-08.
  46. 1 2 McElroy, Damien (2008-05-08). "Israeli battles rage on Wikipedia". The Daily Telegraph. London: Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved 2008-05-08.
  47. "Letter in Harper's Magazine About Wikipedia Issues". CAMERA. 2008-08-14. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
  48. Liphshiz, Cnaan (2007-12-25). "Your Wiki Entry Counts". Haaretz. Retrieved 2015-08-30.
  49. Rettig Gur, Haviv (2010-05-16). "Israeli-Palestinian conflict rages on Wikipedia". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2013-12-06.
  50. Cohen, Noam (2008-08-31). "Don't Like Palin's Wikipedia Story? Change It". The New York Times.
  51. "Sarah Palins Wikipedia entry glossed over by mystery user hrs. before VP announcement". Thaindian News. 2008-09-02.
  52. "Wikipédia en butte à une nouvelle affaire de calomnie". 2007-11-28. Archived from the original on 2015-08-30.
  53. "Responsabilité pénale des intervenants sur Internet : hébergeur du site, responsable du site et auteur d'allégations diffamatoires". Official website of the French Sénat. 2008-02-14. Retrieved 2015-08-30. [A question from Senator Jean-Louis Masson to the Minister of Justice, and the Minister's response]
  54. Woods, Allan (2010-08-25). "Ottawa investigating Wikipedia edits". Toronto Star. Retrieved 2010-08-26.
  55. Nabili, Teymoor (2010-09-11). "The Cyrus Cylinder, Wikipedia and Iran conspiracies". Retrieved 2013-11-19.
  56. Jackson, Ron (2009-08-04). "Open Season on Domainers and Domaining — Overtly Biased L.A. Times Article Leads Latest Assault on Objectivity and Accuracy". Retrieved 2015-08-30.
  57. "Umbria Blogosphere Analysis — Wikipedia and Corporate Blogging" (PDF). J.D. Power Web Intelligence. 2007-08-24. "Organizations like Sony, Diebold, Nintendo, Dell, the CIA and the Church of Scientology were all shown to have sanitized pages about themselves."
  58. MacDonald, Marc (2008-02-01). "Wikipedia Continues To Sanitize Bush Content". Retrieved 2015-08-30.
  59. Grace, Francie; Bergstein, Brian (2007-01-24). "Microsoft Violates Wikipedia's Sacred Rule". CBS News. Associated Press. Retrieved 2008-09-03.
  60. Gohring, Nancy (2007-01-23). "Microsoft said to offer payment for Wikipedia edits". CIO magazine. IDG News Service. Retrieved 2015-08-30.
  61. Gohring, Nancy (2007-01-24). "Microsoft's step into Wikipedia prompts debate". Computerworld. IDG News Service. Retrieved 2015-08-30.
  62. 1 2 3 Rosenzweig, Roy (June 2006). "Can History be Open Source? Wikipedia and the Future of the Past". The Journal of American History. 93 (1): pp. 117–146. doi:10.2307/4486062. Archived from the original on 2010-04-25. Retrieved 2006-08-11. (Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media)
  63. "Wikipedia cancer information accurate". United Press International. 2010-06-04. Retrieved 2010-12-31.
  64. "Fact or fiction? Wikipedia's Variety of Contributors is Not Only a Strength". The Economist. 2007-03-10. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  65. 1 2 "Will Wikipedia Mean the End Of Traditional Encyclopedias?". The Wall Street Journal. 2006-09-12. Retrieved 2006-09-13.
  66. 1 2 3 Cohen, Martin. "Encyclopaedia Idiotica". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 2015-08-30.
  67. Stephen Colbert. The Colbert Report episode 3109. 2007-08-21.
  68. Brophy-Warren, Jamin. "Oh, that John Locke". The Wall Street Journal (2007-06-16). p. 3. Retrieved 2015-08-30.
  69. Hendren, Johnny "DocEvil" (2007-06-05). "The Art of Wikigroaning". Something Awful. Retrieved 2007-06-17.
  70. Brown, Andrew (2007-06-14). "No amount of collaboration will make the sun orbit the Earth". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2010-03-27.
  71. Tossell, Ivor (2007-06-15). "Duality of Wikipedia". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2007-06-20.
  72. Sifferlin, Alexandra (2014-03-25). "Wikipedia Founder Sticks It To 'Lunatic' Holistic Healers". Time. Retrieved 2014-10-22.
  73. Newman, Lily Hay (2014-03-27). "Jimmy Wales Gets Real, and Sassy, About Wikipedia's Holistic Healing Coverage". Slate. Retrieved 2014-10-22.
  74. 1 2 Kirby, J.P. (2007-10-20). "The Problem with Wikipedia". J.P.'s Random Ramblings [blog]. Archived from the original on 2015-08-30.
  75. Baker, Nicholson (2008-03-20). "The Charms of Wikipedia". The New York Review of Books. 55 (4). Retrieved 2015-08-30.
  76. Johnson, Bobbie (2009-08-12). "Wikipedia approaches its limits". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-08-30.
  77. Noah, Timothy (2007-02-24). "Evicted from Wikipedia". Slate. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
  78. Glaser, Mark (2006-04-21). "Email Debate: Wales Discusses Political Bias on Wikipedia". PBS Mediashift. Retrieved 2015-08-30.
  79. Johnson, Bobbie (2007-03-01). "Conservapedia — the US religious right's answer to Wikipedia". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2010-03-27.
  80. Turner, Adam (2007-03-05). "Conservapedia aims to set Wikipedia right". IT Wire. Retrieved 2008-05-12.
  81. Huntington, Doug (2007-05-09). "'Design' Proponents Accuse Wikipedia of Bias, Hypocrisy". The Christian Post. Retrieved 2007-08-09.
  82. Solomon, Lawrence (2008-07-08). "Wikipropaganda On Global Warming". National Review. CBS News. Retrieved 2008-07-20.
  83. Scarborough, Rowan (2010-09-27). "Whacks the Right". Human Events. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
  84. Greenstein, Shane; Zhu, Feng. "Do Experts or Collective Intelligence Write with More Bias? Evidence from Encyclopædia Britannica and Wikipedia" (PDF). Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  85. Greenstein, Shane; Zhu, Feng (December 1, 2012). "Is Wikipedia Biased? Verifying the "neutral point of view"". Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  86. Khimm, Suzy (2012-06-18). "Study: Wikipedia perpetuates political bias". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2013-05-29.
  87. Browne, Marcus (2008-02-12). "Wikipedia accused of 'US-centric bias'". ZDNet Australia. Retrieved 2015-08-30.
  88. Melamed, Samantha. "Edit-athon aims to put left-out black artists into Wikipedia". Philadelphia Daily News. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  89. Smith, Jada. "Howard University Fills in Wikipedia's Gaps in Black History". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  90. Goko, Colleen. "Drive launched to 'Africanise' Wikipedia". Business Day. South Africa. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  91. Cassano, Jay. "Black History Matters, So Why Is Wikipedia Missing So Much Of It?". Fast Company. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  92. Reynosa, Peter. "Why Don't More Latinos Contribute To Wikipedia?". El Tecolote. Retrieved December 5, 2015.
  93. Gardner, Sue (19 February 2011). "Nine Reasons Why Women Don't Edit Wikipedia, In Their Own Words" (blog).
  94. 1 2 Cassell, Justine (2011-02-04). "Editing Wars Behind the Scenes". The New York Times.
  95. 1 2 3 Cohen, Noam (2011-01-30). "Define Gender Gap? Look Up Wikipedia's Contributor List". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-01-31.
  96. Gleick, James (2013-04-29). "Wikipedia's Women Problem". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 2013-11-19.
  97. Filipacchi, Amanda (2013-04-24). "Wikipedia's Sexism Toward Women Novelists". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-08-30.
  98. Dunn, Gaby (2013-05-01). "Does Sexism Lurk?". Retrieved 2013-11-19.
  99. Zandt, Deanna (2013-04-26). "Yes, Wikipedia Is Sexist – That's Why It Needs You". Forbes. Retrieved 2013-11-19.
  100. Andrew Lih (20 June 2015). "Can Wikipedia Survive?". The New York Times. Washington. Retrieved 21 June 2015. ...the considerable and often-noted gender gap among Wikipedia editors; in 2011, less than 15 percent were women.
  101. Statistics based on Wikimedia Foundation Wikipedia editor surveys 2011 (Nov. 2010-April 2011) and November 2011 (April - October 2011)
  102. Cohen, Noam (30 January 2011). "Define Gender Gap? Look Up Wikipedia's Contributor List". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 January 2011.
  103. Huang, Keira (11 August 2013). "Wikipedia fails to bridge gender gap". South China Morning Post.
  104. Wikipedia 'completely failed' to fix gender imbalance, BBC interview with Jimmy Wales, August 8, 2014; starting at 45 seconds.
  105. "Wikipedia attacked over porn pages". Archived from the original on September 17, 2008. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
  106. Raphael, JR (2008-12-10). "Wikipedia Censorship Sparks Free Speech Debate". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2009-05-10.
  107. 1 2 "Wikipedia blasts co-founder's accusations of child porn on website". The Economic Times. 2010-04-29. Retrieved 2010-04-29.
  108. "Wikipedia blasts talk of child porn at website". Agence France-Presse (AFP). 2010-04-28. Archived from the original on 29 April 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  109. "Wikimedia pornography row deepens as Wales cedes rights". BBC News. 2010-05-19. Retrieved 2010-05-19.
  110. Gray, Lila (2013-09-17). "Wikipedia Gives Porn a Break". XBIZ. Retrieved 2013-10-20.
  111. Viégas, Fernanda B.; Wattenberg, Martin; Dave, Kushal. "Studying Cooperation and Conflict between Authors with history flow Visualizations" (PDF). CHI.
  112. Priedhorsky, Reid; Chen, Jilin; Lam, Shyong (Tony) K.; Panciera, Katherine; Terveen, Loren; Riedl, John (2007-11-04). "Creating, destroying, and restoring value in wikipedia". Proceedings of the 2007 international ACM conference on Supporting group work. ACM. Retrieved 2015-08-30.
  113. 1 2 Donnelly, James; Haeckl, Jenifer (2001-04-12). "Privacy and Security on the Internet: What Rights, What Remedies?". Archived from the original on December 1, 2008.
  114. See "Public and Private Figures" by the Digital Media Law Project for the legal distinction.
  115. Brandt, Daniel (2005-09-09). "Wikipedia's Hive Mind Administration". Archived from the original on 2005-11-10.
  116. Lever, Rob (2005-12-11). "Wikipedia Becomes Internet Force, Faces Crisis". Agence France-Presse (AFP). Archived from the original on 2015-08-30. Retrieved 2007-12-26.
  117. "Court overturns temporary restraining order against Wikimedia Deutschland". Heinz Heise. 2006-02-09. Archived from the original on 2007-02-08. Retrieved 2014-01-31.
  118. Arthur, Charles (2009-02-09). "Jimmy Wales in drive-by shooting of Wikipedia". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-08-31.
  119. Mitchell, Dan (2005-12-24). "Insider Editing at Wikipedia". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-08-31.
  120. "Wikipedia Co-Founder Creates Competing Site". 2007-04-04. Retrieved 2013-11-19.
  121. Bergstein, Brian (2007-03-26). "Building an alternative to Wikipedia". NBC News. Retrieved 2013-11-19.
  122. "Wikipedia Vs The Art of Competing with Oneself". Yahoo! Voices. 2007-04-17. Archived from the original on July 28, 2014. Retrieved 2013-11-19.
  123. "Wikipedia Co-Founder Unveils Rival Free Encyclopedia". Fox News Channel. Associated Press. 2007-03-28. Retrieved 2013-11-19.
  124. 1 2 3 Bergstein, Brian (2007-03-25). "Citizendium aims to be better Wikipedia". USA Today. Retrieved 2015-08-30.
  125. Wood, Mike (2013-01-09). "I Get Paid To Edit Wikipedia For Leading Companies". Business Insider. Retrieved 2013-11-19.
  126. 1 2 Paling, Emma (October 21, 2015). "How Wikipedia Is Hostile to Women". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on October 21, 2015. Retrieved October 21, 2015.
  127. Auerbach, David (2014-12-11). "Encyclopedia Frown: Wikipedia is amazing. But it's become a rancorous, sexist, elitist, stupidly bureaucratic mess.". Slate. Retrieved 2014-12-17.
  128. Hern, Alex (2015-01-23). "Wikipedia votes to ban some editors from gender-related articles". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-08-30.
  129. 1 2 3 4 Auerbach, David (2015-02-05). "The Wikipedia Ouroboros". Slate. Retrieved 2015-02-05.
  130. Louise, Maryam (2015-01-25). "GamerGate Wikipedia Ruling Bans Harassed Feminist Editors, Outrage Ensues". Retrieved 2015-08-30.
  131. Williams, Lauren (2015-01-23). "Wikipedia Wants To Ban Feminists From Editing GamerGate Articles". Think Progress. Retrieved 2015-08-30.
  132. Bennett, Alanna (2015-01-24). "Wikipedia Has Banned Five Feminist Editors From Gamergate Articles & More". The Mary Sue. Retrieved 2015-08-30.
  133. Cush, Andy (2015-01-23). "Wikipedia Purged a Group of Feminist Editors Because of Gamergate". Gawker. Archived from the original on 2015-09-13. Retrieved 2015-08-30.
  134. 1 2 Dewey, Caitlin (2015-01-29). "Gamergate, Wikipedia and the limits of 'human knowledge'". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2015-01-29.
  135. 1 2 Mandiberg, Michael (2015-02-01). "The Affective Labor of Wikipedia: GamerGate, Harassment, and Peer Production". Social Text. Retrieved 2015-02-21.
  136. Cush, Andy (2015-01-30). "The Gamergate Decision Shows Exactly What's Broken About Wikipedia". Archived from the original on 2015-02-17. Retrieved 2015-02-17.
  137. Beaudette, Philippe (2015-01-27). "Civility, Wikipedia, and the conversation on Gamergate". Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved 2015-01-28.
  138. Tozer, James (2009-06-07). "Labour councillor David Boothroyd caught altering David Cameron's Wikipedia entry". Daily Mail. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
  139. Metz, Cade (2009-05-26). "Sockpuppeting British politico resigns from Wikisupremecourt". The Register. Retrieved 2009-05-27.
  140. "Meta: Steward requests/Permissions". Meta-Wiki. Retrieved 2014-08-15.
  141. Welham, Jamie; Lakhani, Nina (2009-06-07). "Wikipedia 'sentinel' quits after using alias to alter entries". The Independent. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
  142. 1 2 Schiff, Stacy (2006-07-31). "Know it all: Can Wikipedia conquer expertise?". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2015-08-30.
  143. Finkelstein, Seth (2007-03-08). "Oh, what a tangled web we weave when first we practise to deceive". The Guardian. Retrieved 2007-08-01. At some point, Essjay said he had sent a letter to a real-life college professor using his invented persona's credentials, vouching for Wikipedia's accuracy. In the letter he wrote in part, "It is never the case that known incorrect information is allowed to remain in Wikipedia."
  144. "Talk:Five solas [archived version]". 2005-06-11. Retrieved 2007-06-18.
  145. Orlowski, Andrew (2007-03-02). "Bogus Wikipedia Prof. was blessed then promoted: The Counterfactual History Man". The Register. Retrieved 2007-03-18.
  146. "Fake professor in Wikipedia storm". BBC News. 2007-03-06. Retrieved 2007-03-08.
  147. Bergstein, Brian (2007-03-25). "Sanger says he co-started Wikipedia". The Washington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved 2007-03-26. The nascent Web encyclopedia Citizendium springs from Larry Sanger, a philosophy Ph.D. who counts himself as a co-founder of Wikipedia, the site he now hopes to usurp. The claim doesn't seem particularly controversial—Sanger has long been cited as a co-founder. Yet the other founder, Jimmy Wales, isn't happy about it.
  148. Meyers, Peter (2001-09-20). "Fact-Driven? Collegial? This Site Wants You". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-08-30. "I can start an article that will consist of one paragraph, and then a real expert will come along and add three paragraphs and clean up my one paragraph", said Larry Sanger of Las Vegas, who founded Wikipedia with Mr. Wales.
  149. Mehegan, David (2006-02-12). "Bias, sabotage haunt Wikipedia's free world". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2007-07-30.
  150. Sanger, Larry (2007-03-01). "Wikipedia firmly supports your right to identity fraud". Citizendium Blog. Archived from the original on March 4, 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-02.
  151. "User talk:Jimbo Wales [archived version]".
  152. Sanger, Larry (2007-03-03). "Jimmy Wales' latest response on the Essjay situation". Citizendium Blog. Archived from the original on March 6, 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-03.
  153. "Essjay's Wikia user page". Retrieved 2007-09-19.
  154. Wolfson, Andrew (2007-03-06). "Wikipedia editor who posed as professor is Ky. dropout: Man resigns post after controversy". Louisville Courier-Journal. Archived from the original on 2007-05-17. Retrieved 2007-03-07.
  155. Wales, Jimmy (2007-03-19). "Making amends". The New Yorker. p. 24.
  156. Cohen, Noam (2007-03-05). "A Contributor to Wikipedia Has His Fictional Side". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-03-05.
  157. "[ABC News broadcast on Essjay]". ABC News. Retrieved 2007-03-08.
  158. Bergstein, Brian (2007-03-07). "After flap over phony professor, Wikipedia wants some writers to share real names". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved 2015-08-30.
  159. Williams, Martyn (2007-03-09). "Wikipedia Founder Addresses User Credentials". PC World. IDG News Service. Retrieved 2015-08-31.
  160. "Wikipedia's credentials policy [archived version]". 2008-01-05.
  161. 1 2 Spicuzza, Mary (2008-02-13). "Wikipedia Idiots: The Edit Wars of San Francisco". SF Weekly. p. 2. Retrieved 2015-08-30.
  162. Kolbe, Andreas (2014-08-11). "Wikimania 2014". Retrieved 2015-08-30.
  163. Arthur, Charles (2005-12-14). "Log on and join in, but beware the web cults". The Guardian. Retrieved 2006-07-14.
  164. Stvilla, Besiki; Twidale, Michael; Smith, Linda; Gasser, Les (2008-02-21). "Information Quality Work Organization in Wikipedia" (PDF). Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 20, 2007. ["Information Quality Work Organization in Wikipedia" at Wiley Online Library](subscription required)
  165. Johnson, Bobbie (2009-08-12). "Wikipedia approaches its limits". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-05-25.
  166. "The battle for Wikipedia's soul". The Economist. 2008-03-06. Retrieved 2015-08-31.
  167. Halfaker, Aaron; Geiger, R. Stuart; Morgan, Jonathan T.; Riedl, John (2012). "The Rise and Decline of an Open Collaboration System: How Wikipedia's Reaction to Popularity Is Causing Its Decline" (PDF). American Behavioral Scientist. 57 (5): 664. doi:10.1177/0002764212469365. ISSN 0002-7642. Retrieved 2015-08-30.
  168. Hickman, Martin; Roberts, Genevieve (2006-02-13). "Wikipedia – separating fact from fiction". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 2007-04-17. Such checking leads to a daily battle of wits with the cyber-wreckers who insert erroneous, ludicrous and offensive material into entries. How frequently entries get messed about with depends on the controversy of their subjects. This week the entry Muslim is being attacked dozens of times a day following the row about cartoons of Mohammed with angry denunciations of suicide bombing and claims of hypocrisy. Prime Minister Tony Blair's entry is a favourite for distortion with new statements casting aspersions on his integrity.
  169. Kleinz, Torsten (February 2005). "World of Knowledge" (PDF). Linux Magazine. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 2, 2015. Retrieved 2007-05-12. The Wikipedia's open structure makes it a target for trolls and vandals who malevolently add incorrect information to articles, get other people tied up in endless discussions, and generally do everything to draw attention to themselves.
  170. Shankbone, David (2008-06-07). "Nobody's Safe in Cyberspace". The Brooklyn Rail. Retrieved 2008-07-10.
  171. Auerbach, David (11 December 2014). "Encyclopedia Frown". Slate.
  172. Hill, Benjamin Mako (2013-03-27). "The Institute for Cultural Diplomacy and Wikipedia". eous. Retrieved 2015-08-31.
  173. Postril, Virginia (2014-11-17). "Who Killed Wikipedia?". Pacific Standard. Retrieved 2015-08-31.
  174. 1 2 Lanier, Jaron (2006-05-30). "Digital Maoism: The Hazards of the New Online Collectivism". Edge. Retrieved 2007-04-30.
  175. Shirky, Clay (2006-06-07). "Reactions to Digital Maoism". Retrieved 2007-05-01.
  176. Angwin, Julia; Fowler, Geoffrey A. (2009-11-27). "Volunteers Log Off as Wikipedia Ages". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2013-07-28.(subscription required)
  177. Simonite, Tom (2013-10-22). "The Decline of Wikipedia". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 2015-03-26.
  178. 1 2 Jemielniak, Dariusz (2014-06-22). "The Unbearable Bureaucracy of Wikipedia". Slate.
  179. Wilson, Chris (2008-02-22). "The Wisdom of the Chaperones: Digg, Wikipedia, and the myth of Web 2.0 democracy". Slate. Retrieved 2013-01-14.
  180. Kleeman, Jenny (2007-03-25). "Wiki wars". The Guardian. Retrieved 2007-10-04.

Further reading

External links

This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 12/2/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.