Vandalism on Wikipedia

Vandalism of a Wikipedia article (Sponge). The top image shows a comparison between the vandalized version of the article (right) and the non-vandalized version. The bottom image shows the article as it appeared while vandalized, with the text added by the vandal highlighted in blue.

On Wikipedia, vandalism is the act of editing the project in a malicious manner that is intentionally disruptive. Vandalism includes the addition, removal, or other modification of the text or other material that is either humorous, nonsensical, a hoax, or that is of an offensive, humiliating, or otherwise degrading nature.

Throughout its history, Wikipedia has struggled to maintain a balance between allowing the freedom of open editing and protecting the truth and accuracy of its information when false information can be potentially damaging to its subjects.[1] Vandalism is easy to commit on Wikipedia because anyone can edit the site,[2][3] with the exception of articles that are currently semi-protected, which means that new and unregistered users cannot edit them.

Vandalism can be committed by either guest editors or those with registered accounts; however, a semi-protected or protected page can only be edited by autoconfirmed or confirmed Wikipedia editors, or administrators, respectively.[3] Frequent targets of vandalism include articles on hot and controversial topics, famous celebrities and current events.[4][5] In some cases, people have been falsely reported as having died. This has notably occurred to United States Senators Ted Kennedy and Robert Byrd (both of whom are now deceased), and American rapper Kanye West (who is alive).[6]

The challenge from vandalism in Wikipedia was once characterized by the former Encyclopædia Britannica editor-in-chief Robert McHenry:[7][8] "The user who visits Wikipedia ... is rather in the position of a visitor to a public restroom. It may be obviously dirty, so that he knows to exercise great care, or it may seem fairly clean, so that he may be lulled into a false sense of security. What he certainly does not know is who has used the facilities before him."

Fighting vandalism

Padlocks of different colors are placed on top right of pages to indicate levels of protection. From left to right: semi-protection, move protection, and full protection.

There are various measures taken by Wikipedia to prevent or reduce the amount of vandalism. These include:

Editors are generally warned prior to being blocked. Wikipedia employs a 4-stage warning process up to a block. This includes:[13]

  1. The first warning assumes good faith and takes a relaxed approach on the user.
  2. The second warning does not assume any faith and is an actual warning (in some cases, this level can be skipped if the editor assumes the user is acting in bad faith[14]).
  3. The third warning assumes bad faith and is the first to warn the user that continued vandalism may result in a block.
  4. The fourth warning is a final warning, stating that any future acts of vandalism will result in a block.
  5. After this, other users may place additional warnings, though only administrators can actually carry out the block.

In 2005, Wikipedia started to require those who create new articles to have a registered account in an effort to fight vandalism. This occurred after inaccurate information was added to Wikipedia in which a journalist was accused of taking part in Kennedy's assassination.[2]

Wikipedia has experimented with systems in which edits to some articles, especially those of living people, are delayed until it can be reviewed and determined that they are not vandalism, and in some cases, that a source to verify accuracy is provided. This is in an effort to prevent inaccurate and potentially damaging information about living people from appearing on the site.[15][16]

Screenshot of the vandalism-reports-page on the English Wikipedia as of December 2013.

Notable acts of vandalism

Seigenthaler incident

White-haired elderly gentleman in suit and tie speaks at a podium.
John Seigenthaler, who in 2005 criticized Wikipedia

In May 2005, a user edited the biographical article about John Seigenthaler, Sr. so that it contained several false and defamatory statements.[17] The inaccurate claims went unnoticed between May and September 2005, when they were discovered by Victor S. Johnson, Jr., a friend of Seigenthaler. Wikipedia content is often mirrored at sites such as, which means that incorrect information can be replicated alongside correct information through a number of websites. Such information can develop a misleading air of authority because of its presence at such sites:[18]

Then [Seigenthaler's] son discovered that his father's hoax biography also appeared on two other sites, and, which took direct feeds from Wikipedia. It was out there for four months before Seigenthaler realized and got the Wikipedia entry replaced with a more reliable account. The lies remained for another three weeks on the mirror sites downstream.

Stephen Colbert

Comedian Stephen Colbert has made repeated references to Wikipedia on his TV show The Colbert Report, frequently suggesting on air that his viewers vandalize selected pages. These instances include the following:

When Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales appeared as a guest on 24 May 2007 episode of The Colbert Report, they discussed Colbert-related vandalism. Wales later said on the show that he may have to lock down the entire Spanish-language Wikipedia for a few days after Colbert commented that perhaps it should learn English.[21]

Hillsborough disaster vandalism

In April 2014, the Liverpool Echo reported that computers on an intranet used by the United Kingdom government had been used to post offensive remarks about the Hillsborough disaster on Wikipedia pages relating to the subject. The government announced that it would launch an inquiry into the reports.[22] Following the allegations, The Daily Telegraph subsequently reported that government computers appeared to have been used to make rogue edits to a number of other articles, often adding insulting remarks to biographical articles, and in one case reporting the false death of an individual.[23]

Other notable acts of vandalism

See also


  1. "Wikipedia testing new method to curb false info". Retrieved 2012-06-07.
  2. 1 2 "Wikipedia tightens editorial rules after complaint – 06 December 2005". New Scientist. Retrieved 2012-06-07.
  3. 1 2 "Wikipedia tightens online rules". BBC News. 6 December 2005.
  4. 1 2 3 4 Kleeman, Jenny (2 April 2007). "Wikipedia fights vandalism". New Zealand Herald.
  5. Martin, Lorna (18 June 2006). "Wikipedia fights off cyber vandals". The Guardian. London.
  6. "Vandals prompt Wikipedia to ponder editing changes". ABC News. 28 January 2009. Retrieved 26 November 2011.
  7. "Caslon Analytics: wiki and wikipedia". Caslon Analytics. Archived from the original on 23 April 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  8. Robert McHenry (15 November 2004). "The Faith-Based Encyclopedia". TCS Daily. Retrieved 10 September 2009.
  9. Hicks, Jesse. "This machine kills trolls". The Verge. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
  10. 1 2 3 Broughton, John (2008). Wikipedia: the missing manual. p. 122. ISBN 0-596-51516-2.
  11. Broughton, John (2008). Wikipedia: the missing manual. p. 134. ISBN 0-596-51516-2.
  12. Wikipedia:Abuse filter
  13. Broughton, John (2008). Wikipedia: the missing manual. pp. 130–31. ISBN 0-596-51516-2.
  14. Wikipedia:WikiProject user warnings/Usage and layout#Levels
  15. "Wikipedia Tests Approval System to Reduce Page Vandalism". Maximum PC. 19 July 2008. Retrieved 2012-06-07.
  16. "Wikipedia plans to enforce new editing policy to thwart vandals – eBrandz Search Marketing & Technology News". 27 August 2009. Retrieved 2012-06-07.
  17. John Seigenthaler (2005-11-29). "A false Wikipedia "biography"". USA Today.
  18. "Mistakes and hoaxes on-line". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2006-04-15. Retrieved 2007-04-28.
  19. "Did Colbert hack Wikipedia? – VIDEO". Archived from the original on 19 January 2011. Retrieved 2012-06-07.
  20. "Stephen Colbert's Wikipedia Vice Presidential Scheme Short Circuited". The Hollywood Reporter. 8 August 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-08.
  21. "Jimmy Wales". Comedy Central. 24 May 2007. Archived from the original on 10 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-02.
  22. "Hillsborough Wikipedia posts were 'sickening', Cabinet Office says". BBC News. BBC. 25 April 2014. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
  23. Duggan, Oliver (27 April 2014). "Des Lynam 'killed by a giant snowball' and other embarrassing Wikipedia edits from Whitehall computers". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 4 May 2014.
  24. "Rolling Stone prints story based on Wikipedia vandalism – Wikinews, the free news source". Retrieved 2012-06-07.
  25. "2007-04-19: Wikipedia blokuje anonimowe edycje z łódzkiej Neostrady – Wikinews, wolne źródło informacji" (in Polish). Retrieved 2012-06-07.
  26. Cheung, Humphrey (26 February 2007). "Pro golfer sues over Wikipedia vandalism". Tom's Hardware.
  27. Carlen Lavigne (24 January 2013). Cyberpunk Women, Feminism and Science Fiction: A Critical Study. McFarland. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-7864-6653-5. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  28. 1 2 Helen Lewis (12 June 2012). "Dear The Internet, This Is Why You Can't Have Anything Nice". New Statesman. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  29. Andrea Weckerle (13 February 2013). Civility in the Digital Age: How Companies and People Can Triumph over Haters, Trolls, Bullies and Other Jerks. Que Publishing. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-13-313498-8. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  30. Allen, Nick (5 December 2012). "Wikipedia, the 25–year–old student and the prank that fooled Leveson". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
  31. Andy McSmith (30 November 2012). "Leveson's Wikipedia moment: how internet 'research' on The Independent's history left him red-faced". The Independent.
  32. "Have I Got News for You (series 44, episode 8) TV programme". BBC. 7 December 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  33. "Have I Got News for You: Series 44, Episode 8 (Leveson clip)". BBC. 7 December 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  34. "Hacked to pieces". The Economist. 8 December 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
  35. Caitlin Dewey (April 15, 2015). "The story behind Jar'Edo Wens, the longest-running hoax in Wikipedia history". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 19, 2016.
  36. Ben Popper (22 July 2015). "Someone just deleted Donald Trump's entire Wikipedia page". The Verge (Vox Media).
  37. "All The Content On Donald Trump's Wikipedia Page Was Just Deleted". TPM.
  38. Andrea Peterson (22 July 2015). "Donald Trump’s Wikipedia page was deleted today. Twice.". Washington Post.
  39. "Somebody trolled Chad Le Clos with the greatest Wikipedia page edit ever". 2016-08-10. Retrieved 2016-08-12.
  40. "Chad le Clos' Wikipedia Page Edited to Say Phelps Killed Him". Retrieved 2016-08-12.
  41. Girdusky, Ryan (September 13, 2016). "Hillary Clinton added to the 'Weekend at Bernie's' credits". Red Alert Politics. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
  42. O'Connor, Brendan (October 13, 2016). "Clinton Wiki pages vandalized". Jezebel.
  43. "Assemblyman Tedisco's Wikipedia vandalized".
  44. "Wikipedia users are revolting against Donald Trump's inner circle". Reveal. 2016-11-18. Retrieved 2016-11-19.
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